References & Credits

Unless noted otherwise, all figures on this website are copyright Daniel Howell 2020. Images may not be used without written permission from the copyright holder.

Rotating figures created using BodyParts3D, © The Database Center for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 Japan"

Chapter 1

The Pericardial Membrane (b): Connexions, CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Chapter 10

Figure 10-4: staff (2014). "Medical gallery of Blausen Medical 2014

Figure 10-5: Sarcomere cross-section,  By Kamran Maqsood 93 - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

Figure 10-6: Public Domain

Chapter 18

Figure 18-7 (modified by Howell): John A Beal, PhD Dep't. of Cellular Biology & Anatomy, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Shreveport, CC BY 2.5, via Wikimedia Commons

Chapter 21

Blood clot: erythrocytes trapped in fibrin mesh: Hammond Laboratory, Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, electron microscopy, tissue repair, blood vessels, nanomaterials, MIT

Sickle Cell: OpenStax College, CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Chapter 22

The Cardiac Cycle (modified by Howell):; OpenStax College, CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Chapter 23

The Pulmonary & Systemic Circuits: By OpenStax College - Anatomy & Physiology, Connexions Web site., Jun 19, 2013., CC BY 3.0,

Types of Capillaries: Elizabeth2424, CC BY-SA 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons

Cholesterol Plaque: Npatchett, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Chapter 24

Lymphatic vessel with valve: Carolina Biological

The Complement System: Guido4, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons 

Fever: Image by Victoria_Borodinova via Pixabay.

Chapter 25

Mucus escalator: staff (2014). "Medical gallery of Blausen Medical 2014". WikiJournal of Medicine 1 (2). DOI:10.15347/wjm/2014.010. ISSN 2002-4436., CC BY 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons. Modified by Daniel Howell

Chapter 26

Real-time MRI of Breathing: Biomedizinische NMR Forschungs GmbH, CC BY-SA 3.0, via Wikimedia Commons



I would like to thank the following scholars for peer review and editorial feedback:

Dr. David DeWitt, Columbian International University

Dr. Chrystal Passburg, Liberty University

Dr. Stephen Perry, Central Virginia Community College

Dr. Mark Blais, Liberty University

Dr. Lauren Daly

Mr. Benjamin Hoisington

Mrs. Molly Yandrofski